There are 4 competencies of leadership;
- Management of attention
- Management of meaning
- Self awareness
Leadership is also about change management. Change is the only predictable constant in leadership.
Types of change include;
Most change involves a combination of change types or a progression from one change type to another.
Solutions to problems depend on whether they are unique, differentiated or routine.
- Routine problems usually have robust systems in place to deal with them and the previous solution is reapplied.
- Differentiated problems have some elements of routine problems but with some additional features
- Unique problems are outside the individual or organisation's experience and need unique solutions
Linear models of change are useful for project type activities. For more complex activities, adaptive leadership is more helpful.
There are different tools for managing change;
- SWOT analysis - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats
- McKinsey 7's - analysis of staff, style, systems, strategy, structure, skills & super-ordinate goals
- PESTLE model - analysing political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental factors
- Lewin's Forcefield - examination of the drivers and resistors to change
Changes in complex environments need complex adaptive leadership and emergent change.
Change from the present to desired state requires a transition state which is not always smooth.
John Kotter describes an 8 step model for creating change.
Organisations can be divided into formal & informal components.
Formal components include;
- Policies & procedures
- Spans of control
- Organisational charts
- Organisational mission statements
- Job definitions & descriptions
- Production efficiency
- Personal relationships
- Group norms and sentiments
- Informal leaders
- Prestige and power structures
- Personal or group goals and perceptions
- Effective relationships between managers and subordinates
- Emotional feelings, needs and desires
The Stacey matrix is a model for dealing with complexity. It allows the user to identify management decisions in 2 dimensions - the degree of certainty and the level of agreement. It can help you by offering a method to select appropriate managment actions in a complex adaptive system.
- Self interest
- Low tolerance
- Different assessment of situation
An understanding of leadership is incomplete without an understanding of followership. Followers are as important as leaders. They need to be open-minded and question their own beliefs about who and what leaders should be. Followers need leaders as much as leaders need followers - especially in times of crisis, instability or rapid change
"Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower" - Steve Jobs.
No-one leads all the time. Followers are very rarely passive, especially professionals
Kelley (1992) suggests 4 roles:
- Passive followership
- Active followership
- "Little I" leadership - leading in small ways, at all levels
- "Big L" leadership
He also describes 5 majpr types of followers (2008);
- Sheep - passive, require external motivation, strong direction from leader.
- Yes-people - committed to working with the leader, conformist, unquestioning and loyal.
- Pragmatics - fence sitters
- Alienated - negative, confrontational and disruptive
- Star followers - positive, active, independent thinkers, able to succeed without leader being present.
Followers need a
- feeling of significance
- feeling of community
- feeling of challenge, excitement & edge
There are 5 levels of engagement with followers;
- Isolates - detached and get on with job
- Bystanders - observe but do not participate
- Participants - engaged in some way. Care enough to invest themselves in the organisation.
- Activists - eager, energetic and engaged. Heavily invested in processes and people.
- Diehards - prepared to go down for theor cause.
Recommended book on toxic leaders - "The Allure of Toxic Leaders - Jean Lipman-Blumen"
What are the characteristics of a toxic leader?
- Don't like systems and accountability
- Outlandish behaviour
What are the consequences of a toxic leader?
- Isolated followers
- Toxic culture
- Silence from followers
- Unsafe environment
Twelve Habits of the Toxic Mentor - David Clutterbuck
- Start from the point of view that you know better than the menthe what is in their interest
- Be determined to share your wisdom with them - whether they want it or not
- Decide what you and your mentee will talk about
- Do most of the talking
- Make sure they understand how trivial their concerns are compared to your issues
- Remind the menthe how fortunate they are to have your undivided attention
- Don't show personal weakness
- Never ask them what they should expect of you
- Let them know how important and well connected you are
- Discourage any humour
- Take them to task when they don't follow your advice
- Never admit that this could be a learning experience for you as well.